TRADITIONAL MOUNTAINEERING
www.TraditionalMountaineering.org and also www.AlpineMountaineering.org

TraditionalMountaineering Logo - representing the shared 
companionship of the Climb

FREE BASIC TO ADVANCED ALPINE MOUNTAIN CLIMBING INSTRUCTION
Home | Information | Photos | Calendar | News | Seminars | Experiences | Questions | Updates | Books | Conditions | Links | Search

  Search this site!
Read more:

Here are the test questions

 

What's wrong with GORP? Here's the answer!

What's "wrong" is that GORP and "trail mix" are mostly FAT. We need to replace the burned carbohydrates not the fat. We need to eat ClifBars or fig Newton cookies or bananas, etc.

We all carry plenty of fat; some of us carry  several months supply of fat. The fat is available to the muscles through the bloodstream from fat stores all over the body. We can not store enough of the carbohydrates needed (in the form of glycogen in our big muscles) to keep us from "hitting the wall" or "bonking" and grinding to a halt.  Humans can not metabolize fat efficiently without the chemical help of stored glycogen.

NAME THE THREE PRIMARY FOODS CONSUMED BY HUMANS
1. Carbohydrates, both complex (bread) and simple (sugars)
2. Protein, from fish, foul, cows, corn and beans
3. Fats, impossible to not eat any, some is essential
NAME THE TWO PRIMARY ENERGY FUELS USED IN MUSCLE CONTRACTION
1. Carbos, simple or complex, processed to muscle glycogen
2. Fats, stored in active cells all over and thru the body
DURING A REASONABLY WELL TRAINED MOUNTAINEER'S SIX HOUR HIGH LEVEL AEROBIC CLIMB TO THE SUMMIT OF MOUNT HOOD, WHAT PERCENTAGE OF EACH OF THESE NUTRIENTS WOULD BE BURNED BY THE MUSCLES?
1. 30% glycogen (processed carbohydrates - stored in the muscles)
2. Fat, 70% (stored throughout the body, from excess carbos, proteins and ingested fats)
WHICH OF THESE TWO PRIMARY FUELS MAY RUN OUT DURING THIS CLIMB?
1. Glycogen (carbos), stored in the muscles, after about 2 to 3 hours
ASSUMING THAT THIS CLIMB TO THE SUMMIT OF MT HOOD WILL REQUIRE THE EXPENDITURE OF 3,000 CALORIES ABOVE OUR CLIMBER'S NORMAL DAILY EXPENDITURE OF 3,000, HOW MANY CALORIES OF CARBOHYDRATE SHOULD BE REPLACED (INGESTED) EACH HALF HOUR AFTER THE FIRST HALF HOUR? SHOW YOUR WORK.
1. 3,000cal X 30% = 900cal / 10-1/2hrs = 90cal plus
3,000cal X 30% = 900cal / 48-1/2hrs = 19cal = say 100cal
WOULD COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES OR WOULD SIMPLE SUGARS BEST FUEL THIS CLIMBER'S SIX HOUR CONTINUING HIGH LEVEL AEROBIC EFFORT? WHY?
1. Both simple sugars and complex carbohydrates should be ingested
2. The assimilation of simple sugars (processing to glycogen) is quicker, easier and the complex carbohydrates meter into the blood stream over time, as digested.
WHAT’S THIS ABOUT INGESTING PROTEIN WITH YOUR CARBOS?
1. Studies have shown that the addition of protein facilitates the conversion of carbos to glycogen
WHAT'S WRONG WITH USING PEANUTS AND M&M'S, SWISS CHEESE AND CHOCOLATE, TO FUEL THIS SIX HOUR SUMMIT ATTEMPT?
1. These high fat foods supply almost no needed glycogen
GIVE AT LEAST TWO REASONS WHY IT IS NECESSARY TO HYDRATE EACH HALF HOUR DURING THIS SIX HOUR CLIMB TO THE SUMMIT
1. To replace water lost from the blood - sweat/breath/etc 
2. To avoid thickened blood from water diverted to the gut
ASSUMING A 1 AM START IN JULY, 1996, HOW MUCH WATER SHOULD OUR CLIMBER CARRY? HOW MUCH WOULD THIS WATER WEIGH?
1. 2 ˝ quarts, I guess
2. At 2 lbs/quart, 5 lbs to start out
CAN FAT BE CONVERTED TO MUSCLE GLYCOGEN (SUGAR)?
1. No! That's the key to all of this stuff
IS THE CONVERSION OF PROTEIN (MUSCLE) TO GLYCOGEN AN EFFICIENT PROCESS?
1. No! And it may eat up the little enzymes and stuff you've been training so hard in your long slow runs/hikes/climbs/bike rides/etc
HOW MANY CALORIES OF ENERGY ARE CONTAINED IN A POUND OF FAT?
1. 3,500 and that's a fact!
IF OUR CLIMBER ATE NO FAT, HOW MUCH FAT WEIGHT WOULD HE LOSE?
1. Less than one pound!

(REMEMBER, IT TAKES A CONDITIONED CLIMBER FOUR MORE HOURS TO DESCEND FROM THE SUMMIT OF HOOD AT A COST OF 1500 MORE CALORIES!)

--On Belay! Bob Speik
Copyright© 2000-2007 by Robert Speik. All Rights Reserved.


      
ClifBars are the answer to the need for nutrition during the climb.  Click here 

 

From Harvey Manning's One Step at a Time
Aerobic mountaineering from Harvey Manning's book One Step at a Time, 1972

 

 

 

Read more . . .
Midge Cross - light and fast alpine climbing
Steve House, climbing light and fast
What about carbo-ration and fluid replacement during traditional alpine climbing?   4 pages in pdf  

 CARBORATION AND HYDRATION
Is running the Western States 100 part of "traditional mountaineering"?
What's wrong with GORP?    Answers to the quiz!
Why do I need to count carbohydrate calories?
What should I know about having a big freeze-dried dinner?
What about carbo-ration and fluid replacement during traditional alpine climbing?   4 pages in pdf  
What should I eat before a day of alpine climbing?

  About Alpine Mountaineering:
  The Sport of Alpine Mountaineering
  Climbing Together
  Following the Leader
  The Mountaineers' Rope
  Basic Responsibilities       Cuatro Responsabiliades Basicas de Quienes Salen al Campo
  The Ten Essential Systems        
Los Diez Sistemas Esenciales

 TECHNICAL MOUNTAINEERING
What is the best traditional alpine mountaineering summit pack?
What is the best belay | rappel | autoblock device for traditional alpine mountaineering?
What gear do you normally rack on your traditional alpine mountaineering harness?     Photos?    
What is the best traditional alpine mountaineering seat harness?    Photos?   
Can I use a Sharpie Pen for Marking the Middle of the Climbing Rope?
What are the highest peaks in Oregon?   Alphabetically?

 ALPINE CLIMBING ON SNOW AND ICE
Winter mountaineering hazards - streams and lakes
Is long distance backpacking part of "traditional mountaineering"?
How long is the traditional alpine mountaineering ice axe?
What about climbing Mt. Hood?
What is a good personal description of the south side route on Mount Hood?
What should I know about travel over hard snow and ice?
How can I learn to self belay and ice axe arrest?   6 pdf pages  
What should I know about snow caves?
What should I know about climbing Aconcagua?

 AVALANCHE AVOIDANCE
Young Bend man dies in back county avalanche
What is an avalanche cord?
Avalanche training courses - understanding avalanche risk
How is avalanche risk described and rated by the professionals?    pdf table 
How can I avoid dying in an avalanche?
Known avalanche slopes near Bend, OR?
What is a PLB?
Can I avoid avalanche risk with good gear and seminars?   pdf file

 SNOWSHOES AND CRAMPONS
Why do you like GAB crampons for traditional mountaineering?
What should I know about the new snowshoe trails
What are technical snowshoes?
Which crampons are the best?
What about Boots and Shoes?    

 YOUR ESSENTIAL SUMMIT PACK
What are the new Ten Essential Systems?
What does experience tell us about Light and Fast climbing?
What is the best traditional alpine mountaineering summit pack?
What is Light and Fast alpine climbing?
What do you carry in your day pack?      Photos?    
What do you carry in your winter day pack?       Photos?    
What should I know about "space blankets"?
Where can I get a personal and a group first aid kit?      Photos?

 YOUR LITE AND FAST BACKPACK
Which light backpack do you use for winter and summer?    Analysis   pdf  
What would you carry in your backpack to climb Shasta or Adams?   
What is the best traditional alpine mountaineering summit pack?
Photos of lite gear packed for a multi day approach to spring and summer summits
Backpack lite gear list for spring and summer alpine mountaineering    4 pdf pages

 ESSENTIAL PERSONAL GEAR
What clothing do you wear for Light and Fast winter mountaineering?
What do you carry in your winter day pack?       Photos?   
Which digital camera do you use in the mountains?
What about Boots and Shoes?    

 TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
How did you become interested in traditional mountaineering techniques?
Who is Conrad Messner?
What is traditional slacklining or highlining?
What are some of the comments you have received?
Who was Peter Starr?
Who are the Mazamas?
What is an avalanche cord?
Who were the notorious Vulgarians?
How was top rope climbing practiced in the 1970s?
What is a Whillans sit harness?
What is a dulfersitz rappel?
How do I self-belay a rappel?

 BACKCOUNTRY NAVIGATION
How accurate is the inexpensive hand-held GPS today?
What are some good Central Oregon Geocaches?
What is the Public Land Survey Grid?   pdf
What is the UTM Grid?   six pdf pages
Which GPS do you like?    
Which Compass do you like?   
How do you use your map, compass and GPS together, in a nut shell?
How can I learn to use my map, compass and GPS?
Do you have map, compass and GPS seminar notes?   six pdf pages